A few papers

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Paul Leyland

A quick searcn turns up one for which I only have the abstract as the full text is behind a paywall.

Optimal Addition of Images for Detection and Photometry, Authors: Fischer, P ; Kochanski, G P, In: Astron. J. 107 (1994) 802-810


In this paper we describe weighting techniques used for the optimal coaddition of CCD frames with differing characteristics. Optimal means maximum signal-to-noise (s/n) for stellar objects. We derive formulae for four applications: 1) object detection via matched filter, 2) object detection identical to DAOFIND, 3) aperture photometry, and 4) ALLSTAR profile-fitting photometry. We have included examples involving 21 frames for which either the sky brightness or image resolution varied by a factor of three. The gains in s/n were modest for most of the examples, except for DAOFIND detection with varying image resolution which exhibited a substantial s/n increase. Even though the only consideration was maximizing s/n, the image resolution was seen to improve for most of the variable resolution examples. Also discussed are empirical fits for the weighting and the availability of the program, WEIGHT, used to generate the weighting for the individual frames. Finally, we include appendices describing the effects of clipping algorithms and a scheme for star/galaxy and cosmic ray/star discrimination.

Two much more recent papers I have read in full are https://arxiv.org/pdf/1512.06872.pdf and its sequel https://arxiv.org/abs/1512.06879 which specifically treat optimal co-addition.